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本文摘要:用英语讲解中国历史History of ChinaThe recorded history of China began in the 15th century BC when the Shang Dynasty started to use markings that evolved into the present Chinese characters. Turtle shells with markings reminiscent of ancient Chinese

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用英语讲解中国历史History of ChinaThe recorded history of China began in the 15th century BC when the Shang Dynasty started to use markings that evolved into the present Chinese characters. Turtle shells with markings reminiscent of ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty have been carbon dated to as early as 1500 BC.[1] Chinese civilization originated with city-states in the Yellow River (Huang He) valley. 221 BC is commonly accepted to be the year in which China became unified under a large kingdom or empire. In that year, Qin Shi Huang first united China. Successive dynasties in Chinese history developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the Emperor of China to control increasingly larger territory that reached maximum under the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty and Manchurian Qing Dynasty.The conventional view of Chinese history is that of a country alternating between periods of political unity and disunity and occasionally becoming dominated by foreign peoples, most of whom were assimilated into the Han Chinese population. Cultural and political influences from many parts of Asia, carried by successive waves of immigration, expansion, and assimilation, merged to create the Chinese culture.Xia DynastyThe historian Sima Qian (145 BC-90 BC) and the account in Chinese the Bamboo Annals date the founding of the Xia Dynasty to 4,200 years ago, but this date has not been corroborated. The Shang and Zhou people had existed within the Xia Dynasty since the beginning of Xia. They were Xia’s loyal vassals. The exact time of the Xia Dynasty is hard to define, but mainly focused on two options, either 431 years or 471 years.Shang Dynasty Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang found in the Yellow River Valley.The earliest discovered written record of China's past dates from the Shang Dynasty in perhaps the 13th century BC, and takes the form of inscriptions of divination records on the bones or shells of animals—the so-called oracle bones. Archaeological findings providing evidence for the existence of the Shang Dynasty, c 1600–1046 BC is divided into two sets. The first set, from the earlier Shang period (c 1600–1300 BC) comes from sources at Erligang, Zhengzhou and Shangcheng. The second set, from the later Shang or Yin (殷) period, consists of a large body of oracle bone writings. Anyang in modern day Henan has been confirmed as the last of the nine capitals of the Shang (c 1300–1046 BC). The Shang Dynasty featured 31 kings, from Tang of Shang to King Zhou of Shang; it was the longest dynasty in Chinese history.Zhou Dynasty Bronze ritual vessel, Western Zhou DynastyMain article: Zhou DynastyBy the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the Zhou Dynasty began to emerge in the Yellow River valley, overrunning the Shang. The Zhou appeared to have begun their rule under a semi-feudal system. The Zhou were a people who lived west of Shang, and the Zhou leader had been appointed "Western Protector" by the Shang. The ruler of the Zhou, King Wu, with the assistance of his brother, the Duke of Zhou, as regent managed to defeat the Shang at the Battle of Muye. The king of Zhou at this time invoked the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize his rule, a concept that would be influential for almost every successive dynasty. The Zhou initially moved their capital west to an area near modern Xi'an, near the Yellow River, but they would preside over a series of expansions into the Yangtze River valley. This would be the first of many population migrations from north to south in Chinese history.Spring and Autumn Period Chinese pu vessel with interlaced dragon design, Spring and Autumn Period.In the 8th century BC, power became decentralized during the Spring and Autumn Period (春秋时代), named after the influential Spring and Autumn Annals. In this period, local military leaders used by the Zhou began to assert their power and vie for hegemony. The situation was aggravated by the invasion of other peoples from the northwest, such as the Qin, forcing the Zhou to move their capital east to Luoyang. This marks the second large phase of the Zhou dynasty: the Eastern Zhou. In each of the hundreds of states that eventually arose, local strongmen held most of the political power and continued their subservience to the Zhou kings in name only. Local leaders for instance started using royal titles for themselves. The Hundred Schools of Thought (诸子百家,诸子百家) of Chinese philosophy blossomed during this period, and such influential intellectual movements as Confucianism (儒家), Taoism (道家), Legalism (法家) and Mohism (墨家) were founded, partly in response to the changing political world. The Spring and Autumn Period is marked by a falling apart of the central Zhou power. China now consists of hundreds of states, some only as large as a village with a fort.Warring States PeriodMain article: Warring States PeriodAfter further political consolidation, seven prominent states remained by the end of 5th century BC, and the years in which these few states battled each other are known as the Warring States Period. Though there remained a nominal Zhou king until 256 BC, he was largely a figurehead and held little real power. As neighboring territories of these warring states, including areas of modern Sichuan and Liaoning, were annexed, they were governed under the new local administrative system of commandery and prefecture (郡县,郡县). This system had been in use since the Spring and Autumn Period and parts can still be seen in the modern system of Sheng & Xian (province and county, 省县,省县). The final expansion in this period began during the reign of Ying Zheng (嬴政), the king of Qin. His unification of the other six powers, and further annexations in the modern regions of Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi in 214 BC enabled him to proclaim himself the First Emperor (Qin Shi Huangdi, 秦始皇帝).Qin Dynasty The Terracotta Army of Qin Shi Huang.Main article: Qin DynastyHistorians often refer to the period from Qin Dynasty to the end of Qing Dynasty as Imperial China. Though the unified reign of the Qin (秦) Emperor lasted only 12 years, he managed to subdue great parts of what constitutes the core of the Han Chinese homeland and to unite them under a tightly centralized Legalist government seated at Xianyang (咸阳,咸阳) (close to modern Xi'an). The doctrine of legalism that guided the Qin emphasized strict adherence to a legal code and the absolute power of the emperor. This philosophy of Legalism, while effective for expanding the empire in a military fashion, proved unworkable for governing it in peace time. The Qin presided over the brutal silencing of political opposition, including the event known as the burning and burying of scholars. This would be the impetus behind the later Han Synthesis incorporating the more moderate schools of political governance.Han Dynasty(206 BC-220 AD) A Han Dynasty incense burner with a sliding shutter.The Han Dynasty emerged in 206 BC. It was the first dynasty to embrace the philosophy of Confucianism, which became the ideological underpinning of all regimes until the end of imperial China. Under the Han Dynasty, China made great advances in many areas of the arts and sciences. Emperor Wu (Han Wudi 汉武帝,汉武帝) consolidated and extended the Chinese empire by pushing back the Xiongnu (sometimes identified with the Huns) into the steppes of modern Inner Mongolia, wresting from them the modern areas of Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai. This enabled the first opening of trading connections between China and the West, the Silk Road.Nevertheless, land acquisitions by elite families gradually drained the tax base. In AD 9, the usurper Wang Mang (王莽) founded the short-lived Xin ("New") Dynasty (新的朝) and started an extensive program of land and other economic reforms. These programs, however, were never supported by the land-holding families, for they favored the peasants. The instability brought about chaos and uprisings.Emperor Guangwu (光武帝) reinstated the Han Dynasty with the support of land-holding and merchant families at Luoyang, east of Xi'an. This new era would be termed the Eastern Han Dynasty. Han power declined again amidst land acquisitions, invasions, and feuding between consort clans and eunuchs. The Yellow Turban Rebellion (黄巾之乱,黄巾之乱) broke out in 184, ushering in an era of warlords. In the ensuing turmoil, three states tried to gain predominance in the Period of the Three Kingdoms. This time period has been greatly romanticized in works such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms.Jin Dynasty (265–420)Though the three kingdoms were reunited temporarily in 278 by the Jin Dynasty, the contemporary non-Han Chinese (Wu Hu, 五胡) ethnic groups controlled much of the country in the early 4th century and provoked large-scale Han Chinese migrations to south of the Chang Jiang. In 303 the Di people rebelled and later captured Chengdu, establishing the state of Cheng Han. Under Liu Yuan the Xiongnu rebelled near today's Linfen County and established the state of Han Zhao. His successor Liu Cong captured and executed the last two Western Jin emperors. Sixteen kingdoms were a plethora of short-lived non-Chinese dynasties that came to rule the whole or parts of northern China in the 4th and 5th centuries. Many ethnic groups were involved, including ancestors of the Turks, Mongolians, and Tibetans. Most of these nomadic peoples had to some extent been "Sinicized" long before their ascent to power. In fact, some of them, notably the Ch'iang and the Xiong-nu, had already been allowed to live in the frontier regions within the Great Wall since late Han times.Southern and Northern Dynasties A limestone statue of the Bodhisattva, from the Northern Qi Dynasty, 570 AD, made in what is now modern Henan province.Main article: Southern and Northern DynastiesSignaled by the collapse of East Jin (东晋,东晋) Dynasty in 420, China entered the era of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The Han people managed to survive the military attacks from the nomadic tribes of the north, such as the Xian Bei (鲜卑), and their civilization continued to thrive.In Southern China, fierce debates about whether Buddhism should be allowed to exist were held frequently by the royal court and nobles. Finally, near the end of the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, both Buddhist and Taoist followers compromised and became more tolerant of each other.In 589, Sui (隋) annexed the last Southern Dynasty, Chen (陈,陈), through military force, and put an end to the era of Southern and Northern Dynasties.Sui DynastyThe Sui Dynasty (隋朝), which managed to reunite the country in 589 after nearly four centuries of political fragmentation, played a role more important than its length of existence would suggest. The Sui brought China together again and set up many institutions that were to be adopted by their successors, the Tang. Like the Qin, however, the Sui overused their resources and collapsed. Also similar to the Qin, traditional history has judged the Sui somewhat unfairly. As it has stressed the harshness of the Sui regime and the arrogance of its second emperor, giving little credit for the Dynasty's many positive achievements.Tang Dynasty A Chinese Tang Dynasty tri-colored glaze porcelain horse (ca. 700 AD).Main article: Tang DynastyOn June 18, 618, Gaozu (唐高祖) took the throne, and the Tang Dynasty (唐朝) was established, opening a new age of prosperity and innovations in arts and technology. Buddhism, which had gradually been established in China from the first century, became the predominant religion and was adopted by the imperial family and many of the common people.Chang'an (长安,长安) (modern Xi'an西安), the national capital, is thought to have been the world's largest city at the time. The Tang and the Han are often referred to as the most prosperous periods of Chinese history.The Tang, like the Han, kept the trade routes open to the west and south and there was extensive trade with distant foreign countries and many foreign merchants settled in China.Five Dynasties and Ten KingdomsMain article: Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms PeriodThe period of political disunity between the Tang and the Song, known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (五代十国), lasted little more than half a century, from 907 to 960. During this brief era, when China was in all respects a multi-state system, five regimes succeeded one another rapidly in control of the old Imperial heartland in northern China. During this same time, 10 more stable regimes occupied sections of southern and western China, so the period is also referred to as that of the Ten Kingdoms (十国).Song Dynasty and Liao, Jin, Western Xia Homeward Oxherds in Wind and Rain, by Li Di, 12th centuryMain articles: Song Dynasty, Liao Dynasty, Western Xia, and Jin Dynasty, 1115-1234In 960, the Song Dynasty (960-1279) (宋朝) gained power over most of China and established its capital in Kaifeng (汴京/汴京,汴京), starting a period of economic prosperity, while the Khitan Liao Dynasty (契丹族辽国,契丹族辽国) ruled over Manchuria and eastern Mongolia. In 1115 the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) (女真族金国,女真族金国) emerged to prominence, annihilating the Liao Dynasty in 10 years. Meanwhile, in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, there emerged a Western Xia Dynasty (西夏) from 1032 up to 1227, established by Tangut tribes.Yuan Dynasty Yang Guifei Mounting a Horse, by Qian Xuan (1235-1305 AD).Jurchen tribes' Jin Dynasty, whose names are also rendered "Jin" in pinyin, was defeated by the Mongols, who then proceeded to defeat the Southern Song in a long and bloody war, the first war where firearms played an important role. During the era after the war, later called the Pax Mongolica, adventurous Westerners such as Marco Polo travelled all the way to China and brought the first reports of its wonders to Europe. In the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols were divided between those who wanted to remain based in the steppes and those who wished to adopt the customs of the ChineseMing Dynasty Court Ladies of the Former Shu, by Ming painter Tang Yin (1470-1523).Throughout a short-lived Yuan Dynasty, there was strong sentiment, among the populace, against the rule of the foreigners, which finally led to peasant revolts. The Mongolians were pushed back to the steppes and replaced by the Ming Dynasty (明朝) in 1368.Qing DynastyMain article: Qing DynastyThe Qing Dynasty (清朝, 1644–1911) was founded after the defeat of the Ming, the last Han Chinese dynasty, by the Manchus (满族,满族). The Manchus were formerly known as the Jurchen and invaded from the north in the late seventeenth century. An estimated 25 million people died during the Manchu conquest of Ming Dynasty (1616-1644).参考资料:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_China中国古代名人的英文讲解1、李斯李斯(公元前284年—公元前208年),字通古,汝南上蔡(今河南省上蔡县芦冈乡李斯楼村)人。秦朝知名政治家、文学家和书法家。Lisi (284 BC - 208 BC), a native of Shangcai, Runan (now Lislou Village, Lugang Township, Shangcai County, Henan Province). Famous politicians, writers and calligraphers in Qin Dynasty.李斯早年为郡小吏,师从荀子自学帝王之术。完成学业之后,进秦清廉 ,丞相吕不韦以为郎官。

In his early years, Li Si was a small official in the county. He learned the art of emperor from Xunzi. After learning it, he became an official in Qin Dynasty, and his prime minister, Lv Buwei, regarded him as a Lang Guan.2、蔡邕蔡邕(133年-192年),字伯喈。陈留郡圉县(今河南杞县南)人。东汉时期名臣,文学家、书法家,才女蔡文姬之父。

Cai Yong (133-192), Bo Zhe. Chen Liujun Meixian (now Qixian South of Henan Province) people. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Cai Wenji, a famous minister, writer and calligrapher, was the father of a gifted girl.董卓被谋反后,蔡邕因在王允座上感慨而被获罪,旋即之后杀于狱中,年六十。After Dong Zhuo was slaughtered, Cai Yong was imprisoned for sighing at Wang Yunzuo. He soon died in prison at the age of sixty.3、王羲之王羲之(303—361,一说道321—379),字逸较少,东晋时期书法家,有“书圣”之称之为。

Wang Xizhi (303-361, 321-379), a calligrapher in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, was known as the "Book Sage".其书法文藻隶、草、楷、讫各体,精研体势,心摹手追,甚广采众宽,补精诸体,冶于一炉,挣脱了汉魏笔风,自成一家,影响深远影响。His calligraphy is good at Li, Cao, Kai and Xing, studying body posture carefully, imitating and pursuing hand by hand, widely collecting all the advantages, preparing all kinds of body, melting into one furnace, getting rid of the style of writing in Han and Wei Dynasties, and becoming a family of its own with far-reaching influence.4、苏轼苏轼(1037年1月8日,一说道1036年12月19日—1101年8月24日),字子思、和仲,号铁冠道人、东坡居士,世称苏东坡、苏仙,汉族,眉州眉山(四川省眉山市)人,祖籍河北栾城,北宋知名文学家、书法家、画家。Su Shi (January 8, 1037, December 19, 1036 - August 24, 1101) is a famous writer, calligrapher and painter of the Northern Song Dynasty.5、孔子孔子(公元前551年9月28日―公元前479年4月11日),子姓,孔氏,名丘,字仲尼,春秋末期鲁国陬邑(今山东曲阜)人,祖籍宋国栗邑(今河南夏邑),中国古代思想家、教育家,儒家学派创始人。

Confucius (September 28, 551 BC - April 11, 479 BC), Zi's surname, Confucius, Mingqiu, Zhongni, a member of Luguo Haoyi (now Qufu, Shandong Province) in the late Spring and Autumn Period, was born in Liyi, Song Dynasty (now Xiayi, Henan Province), an ancient thinker, educator and founder of Confucianism.中国历史概述英文版北京奥运会上把张艺谋摸难忍 了还是花上了5个小时才把中国将近五千年的历史演译尽,你更加强劲!要用2分钟。用英文讲解中国历史人物In 200, Yuan Shao amassed more than 100,000 troops and marched southwards on Xuchang in the name of rescuing the emperor. Cao Cao gathered 20,000 men in Guandu, a strategic point on the shore of the Yellow River. The two armies come to a standstill as neither side was able to make much progress. Cao Cao's lack of men did not allow him to make significant attacks, and the pride of Yuan Shao forced him to target Cao Cao's force head-on. Despite his overwhelming advantage in terms of manpower Yuan Shao was unable to make full use of his resources because of his indecisive leadership and Cao Cao's location.Besides the middle battleground of Guandu, two lines of battle were present. The eastern line with Yuan Tan of Yuan Shao's army versus Zang Ba of Cao Cao's army was a one-sided battle in favor of Cao Cao, as Yuan Tan's own questionable leadership was no match for Xang Ba's local knowledge of the landscape and hit-and-run tactics. To the western side, Yuan Shao's cousin, Gao Gan, performed much better against Cao Cao's army and forced several reinforcements from Cao Cao's main camp to maintain the western battle. Liu Bei, who was at the time a guest in Yuan Shao's army, also suggested to induce uprising in the back of Cao Cao's lands as there were many connections to the Yuan family and their subordinates. The tactic was successful at first, but quickly countered by Man Chong's diplomatic skill. Man Chong had been placed as an official there for this specific reason, as Cao Cao had foreseen the situation prior to the battle.Finally, with the help of a defector from Yuan Shao's army, Xu You, who informed Cao Cao of the location of Yuan Shao's army supply, Cao Cao broke the standstill and sent a special task force to burn all the supplies of Yuan Shao's army and won a decisive and seemingly impossible victory. Yuan Shao fell ill and died shortly after returning from the defeat, leaving his legacy to two of his sons – the eldest son, Yuan Tan and the youngest son, Yuan Shang. As he had designated the youngest son, Yuan Shang, as his successor, rather than the eldest as tradition dictated, the two brothers consistently feuded against each other, as they fought Cao Cao. Because of their internal divisions, Cao Cao was easily able to defeat them by using their differences to his advantage. Henceforth Cao Cao assumed effective rule over all of northern China. He sent armies further out and extended his control past the Great Wall into northern Korea, and southward to the Han River.However, Cao Cao's attempt to extend his domination south of the Yangtze River was unsuccessful. He received an initial great success when Liu Biao, ruler of Jing Zhou, died, and his successor, Liu Zong surrendered to Cao Cao without resistance. Delighted by this turn-out (Cao Cao, a devoted follower of Sun Tzu's Art of War, also considered "defeating your enemy without battle" to be the highest form of achievement of war) he pressed on and hoped the same would happen despite the objections by his military advisors. His forces were then defeated by the first coalition of his archrivals Liu Bei and Sun Quan (who later founded the kingdoms of Shu and Wu respectively) at the Red Cliffs in 208.参考资料:维基百科中国历史上的英雄人物 英文讲解岳飞三次转戎,岳母刺字,精忠报国的故事Three imes for Join the ArmyThe year 1103 (Northern Song Chongning two years), Yue Fei was born in West HebeiXiangzhou Tangyin county (Tangyin County, Anyang City, Henan province today) of an ordinary farmer. Legend has it that Yue Fei was born, there are large birds if Hu, Hita room, so parentsnamed him fly, word pengju.The young Yue Fei, who Chenhouguayan, often negative integrity. Read "Tso", "Sun Wu's art of war" and other books. Once week with ("Shuo Yue Quan Zhuan", instead of "Zhou Tong") as a teacher, learning horsemanship and archery, do. Soon the week with died, Yue Fei during the first, fifteen, was dear to their grave. After flying and worship Chen Guang as a teacher, learningand the law, Wu Yi "one county invincible". Yue Feisheng has the power, under 20 years old canbow three hundred Song Jin, open waist crossbow eight stone, "the strange people".1122 (four years), Tong Guan, Cai Youbing lost the Khitan, Hebei Xuan Fusi official Liu Ge toreally set house (now Hebei county) to recruit "dare to the Liao soldier" (that is, as the sign of Liaoning). Yue Fei bonds, through the selection, was named "dare warrior" in the name of captain. At the age of 20, Yue Fei began his military life. Tao Jun, Jia Jin in the state ofinsurrection thieves, Yue Fei plead to pesticides. Yue Fei's outstanding performance,leadhindred ride horse, with their plan, captured the thief to two.When Yue Fei's father Yue and died, leaving Liu Ge fly back to Tangyin, leaving the army, was in mourning. And for six years, Hebei Lu Yue floods, struggled to make ends meet, Yue Fei in order to make a living, but also to He Dong Lu pacification army cast Rong, was promoted topartial school.1125 (seven years), after the eradication of Liaoning, on a large scale invasion of the SouthSong dynasty. Emperor Huizong Zen in the eldest son of Zhao Huan, namely that, the following year yuan kang. Dong Lu Jin army crossed the Yellow River surrounded by Kaifeng, that with Li Gang guarding the capital, but eventually agreed to a peace offering large quantities of gold and silver, Xu, Taiyuan city of gold and cut.1126 (Jingkang first year), that's territory, two Jin Jun in Taiyuan after the break up, two south tothe siege of Kaifeng. At the same time and that makes people send wax Book Life Kang Zhao Gou for the Hebei military forces in the Grand Marshal, recruitment of various military forcesguarding the king to. In the state of the city, Wu wing doctor Liu Hao is responsible for the recruitment of the Patriots, incorporate the fleeing troops. Down from the army to break back to the hometown of Yue Fei witnessed the Jin invasion killed, enslaved people, heart indignation, toenlist, worried mother and old, weak, are not safe in the mutiny. The mother-in-law Yao is awomen understand the important principle thoroughly, actively encouraged Yue Fei "just serve the country", as Yue Fei was back on thorn "serve one's country loyally (later kingdoms as'patriotism ')" four words for training. Yue Fei remember mother's teachings, to leave family,joined the anti gold front.中国茶的历史(英文版)《中国茶(英文版)》内容简介:China, as the homeland of tea, pioneers the world in planting, making and drinking it. This book introduces various kinds of Chinese tea, the appreciation of tea sets that suit both refined and popular tastes, trade of tea both at home and abroad, Chinese tea ceremonies and the relationship between tea and literati and culture. China has a vast territory and varied climates, so different teas are produced in different areas, different techniques are developed in making tea and different tastes for appreciation of teas are developed among people from different regions. Through interesting descriptions, this book details all these situations, and meanwhile it makes some comparative descriptions between Chinese and some foreign teas, such as European black tea, Japanese clear tea as well their correspond-ing ways of drinking tea, enabling readers to better under stand and appreciate China and Chinese people while learning a great deal of knowledge about tea.。


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